Nonthaburi is over 400 years old, dating back to when Ayutthaya was the capital. The town was originally located at Tambon Ban Talat Khwan, a famous fruit orchard where the Chao Phraya River and various canals pass through.
King Prasat Thong ordered the digging of a canal as a shortcut from the south of Wat Thai Muang to Wat Khema because the old waterway flowed into Om River to Bang Yai then to Bang Kruai Canal next to Wat Chalo before ending in front of Wat Khema.
After the new shortcut was completed, the Chao Phraya River changed its flow into the new route that remains today. In 1665, King Narai the Great noticed that the new route gave enemies too much proximity to the capital. Therefore, he ordered that a fortress be built at the mouth of Om River and relocated Nonthaburi to this area. A city shrine still stands there.
Later during the reign of King Rama IV of the Rattanakosin period, he ordered the town moved to the mouth of Bang Su Canal in Ban Talat Khwan. King Rama V then had the provincial hall built there on the left bank of the Chao Phraya River. In 1928, the hall was moved to Ratchawitthayalai, Ban Bang Khwan, Tambon Bang Tanao Si. It is now the Training Division of the Ministry of Interior on Pracha Rat 1 Road, Amphoe Muang, on the bank of the Chao Phraya River. The building is of European architecture decorated with patterned woodwork. The Fine Arts Department has registered it as an historical site. The provincial hall is now on Rattanathibet Road.